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Precautions during construction of refractory castables and improve service life

1.)检查锚的类型,尺寸,布置和焊接质量。必须补偿金属锚的膨胀; 锚固件通常由浇注料或承重件的铸造厚度决定,锚固件的厚度约为12mm。适当地,14-16mm超过300mm,锚的长度比浇注料低30-50mm,锚的密度约为200-250mm,锚的头部应涂有沥青或胶带。为了保留膨胀系数,厚度通常为2-3mm。(2)浇注前检查耐火浇注料的包装和生产日期,并进行初步检验,检查其是否无效。(3)检查施工用水,水质必须达到饮用水水质。   耐火浇注结构的模板可以由钢或硬木制成。模板应具有足够的强度,良好的刚性,无形状,无位移,无泄漏。钢模板应涂上脱模剂,木模板应涂上防水涂料。在绘画之前应该清洁可重复使用的模板。   加入浇注料的水量应严格按照使用说明书进行控制,且不得超过限值。在保证施工性能的前提下,水量应越来越少。通常,加入的水量不超​​过7%。根据当时的天气,环境温度可以放宽至最高9%。在加入水之前将浇注料与水混合2分钟,然后加入80%的水用于搅拌。然后,根据干燥程度和湿度,缓慢加入剩余的水以继续搅拌直至获得合适的工作稠度。在混合不同的浇注料之前,应先清洗混合器。   耐火浇注料必须用于整袋。搅拌的浇注料通常在30分钟内用完。在高温干燥的工作环境中,有必要缩短这个时间。最初冷凝或甚至凝聚的浇注料不得倒入模框中,不得与水混合。   The refractory castable poured into the mold frame should be layered and shattered immediately with a vibrating rod. The height of each layer should be no more than 300mm.The vibration spacing is preferably about 250mm. Try to avoid touching the anchor when shaking, and do not shock or tremble in the same position. After seeing the surface of the castable material, the vibrating rod should be slowly extracted after the slurry is returned to avoid segregation and voiding in the castable layer. After the pouring is completed, the cast body can no longer be pressed and shocked before solidification.   When expanding large area, reserve expansion joints, generally more than 1.5m2, need to leave expansion joints. The corresponding expansion distance is about 1 m. The expansion joints should be left at the spacing of the anchors. The material is generally made of fire-resistant cotton or plywood.   After the surface of the castable is dry, immediately cover the exposed part of the air with a plastic film or a straw bag. After the initial condensation arrives, it should be regularly sprinkled and maintained to keep the surface moist. After the castable is hardened, it can be demoulded after 16 hours, and the strength of the load-bearing part can be demolished after 24 hours.   8.模板拆除后,应及时检查铸造体。发现蜂窝,剥落和空隙等质量问题应及时处理和修复。当问题严重时,应将凿子部分凿刻以暴露锚固件,然后使用相同质量的固体材料填充压实,并继续维护。禁止使用水泥砂浆来解决问题。

You need to know about the use and maintenance of tungsten carbide roll rings to extend the service life of the tungsten carbide roll rings

Use of tungsten carbide roll rings Previously used rolls were centrifugal composite cast needle-shaped ductile iron rolling mill rolls, and the small-size finished single-slot rolling was only about 120 tons, which was frequent. In actual use, the first rolling single groove rolling amount is 1200t when the steel surface finish and the groove grinding amount are 0.75mm. After that, the cooling water system is further improved, the number of cooling water nozzles and the arrangement of the slots are improved, and the amount of water and water pressure are increased. The water pressure is increased from 0.25Mpa to 0.4Mpa. The single-groove rolling amount is increased to 1300 to 1400 tons.   Cooling of the tungsten carbide roll rings Tungsten carbide roll rings have high requirements for cooling water during rolling, and sufficient attention should be paid to the water volume, water pressure, water temperature and water quality of the cooling water. Due to its good thermal conductivity, cemented carbide will cause excessive heat transfer to the inner layer and the mandrel, resulting in internal expansion force, which is very dangerous for the cemented tungsten carbide roll rings at the outer layer. Tungsten carbide roll rings require enhanced water cooling.   Due to the high hardness and thermal cracking sensitivity of the cemented carbide, sufficient cooling is required immediately after the roller ring is in contact with the red steel. The flow of cooling water and its precise distribution have a decisive influence on the performance of the rolls. In addition to having a sufficient amount of water, the roll surface should be as cold as possible as soon as it leaves the roll gap and is continuously cooled on the largest possible circumference. The ideal cooling system is that the nozzles are distributed in a ring shape, and the main...
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The 13 steps you need to know about electric arc furnace steelmaking!

1.Feeding.The operation of adding hot metal or scrap steel to the electric arc furnace is the first step in the electric steelmaking operation.   Slag formation.The operation of adjusting the slag composition, alkalinity and viscosity and the reaction ability of steel and iron production.   Slag.In the electric arc furnace steelmaking, the slagging or slag slag operation is carried out in the smelting process according to different smelting conditions and purposes. When smelting with the single slag method, the oxidized slag must be slag at the end of the oxidation; when the slag is reduced by the double slag method, the original oxidized slag must be completely released to prevent phosphorus from being returned.   Molten pool stirring.Energy is supplied to the molten metal pool to cause movement of the molten metal and slag to improve the kinetic conditions of the metallurgical reaction. The molten pool agitation can be achieved by means of gas, mechanical, electromagnetic induction and the like.   Dephosphorization.A chemical reaction that reduces the amount of phosphorus in the molten steel. Phosphorus is one of the harmful impurities in steel. Steels containing more phosphorus are easily brittle when used at room temperature or lower, and are called “cold brittle”. The higher the carbon content in the steel, the more severe the brittleness caused by phosphorus. In general steel, the phosphorus content is not more than 0.045%, and high-quality steel requires less phosphorus.   Electric bottom blowing electric arc furnace bottom blowing.The gas such as N2, Ar, CO2, CO, CH4, O2, etc. is blown into the molten pool of the furnace according to the process requirements through a nozzle placed at the bottom of the furnace to accelerate the melting and promote the metallurgical reaction process.   Melting period.The melting period of steelmaking is mainly for open hearth...
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14ommon problems of smelting molten iron in induction furnace

14ommon problems of smelting molten iron in induction furnace 1.Burning loss of Si, Mn, Cr and other oxidizable elements in induction furnace 2 Induction furnace has no cupola oxidation atmosphere 3 Temperature of molten iron in induction furnace exceeds equilibrium temperature 4 After the castings were machined, cracks were found 5 The inoculation effect of gray cast iron is not good 6 The spheroidization degree of ductile iron fluctuates greatly 7 The number of graphite balls is less and the size of the balls is not uniform 8 Poor cutting performance of casting 9 Spectral analysis showed that the residual Mg content was more than 0.06%, but the casting was not blank 10 Ductile iron has low impact toughness 11 There is an unknown cause 12 Induction furnace smelting time is long, power consumption is high 13 There is a continual glitch in Induction furnace 14 The elephant foot  

lightning protection or earthing system is the actual conductor

lightning protection or earthing system LMM By far the largest and most important component of any structural lightning protection or earthing system is the actual conductor. Selection of the correct conductor type for the installation is highly  important, and is likely to be the initialconsideration of a lightning protection  or earthing system designer. A comprehensive range of LMM copper and aluminium conductors are  available  in each of the main world standardformats, i.e. flat tape, solid circular and stranded. Additionally each format is available in a variety of  conductor sizes ,to meet differing  lightning protection and earthing requirements. Specification will depend on whether the application is for an above ground structural lightning protection system, or a below ground earthing installation.  

Introduction to the main properties of refractory cement

Refractory cement is also called aluminate cement. The raw material of aluminate cement is made of bauxite and limestone. After calcination, clinker with calcium aluminate as the main component and alumina content of about 50%, Grinding into a hydraulic cementitious material is also a kind of special cement. Characteristics and applications of refractory cement: 1. The degree of refractoriness is not much different from that of the same quality refractory item. However, since the refractory cement is not sintered, it shrinks greatly during the initial smelting, so the load softening point is slightly lower than that of the refractory item. Despite this, the overall performance is better than that of refractory items. 2. Refractory cement is superior to the low-temperature cementing agent, and the constant temperature and pressure resistance is high. At the same time, due to the good mass of the masonry, the airtightness of the blast furnace is good, and it is not easy to shape. The steel of the furnace shell at the door can be taken off, and the function of the blast furnace against the machine shock and impact is better than that of the brick masonry. For example, the head of the side wall used for the soaking furnace, where the machine wears and bumps are quite powerful, and the furnace age is several times higher than that of the brick. 3. The thermal stability is good. The thermal stability of refractory cement is good. The aggregate is almost all clinker. The expansion and the shrinkage of the cement are low. Therefore, the thermal expansion of the masonry is smaller than that of the brick, the temperature stress is relatively small, and the structure is also various. Reticulated, needle-like, chain-like crystalline phase, strong resistance to air temperature, for example, used to cast soaking furnace...
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Ultra high power graphite electrode market: global demand, growth analysis and opportunity outlook 2023

超高功率(UHP)石墨电极广泛用于电弧炉中,通过冶炼废料或原料来生产钢。它在铁合金生产,硅金属生产和黄磷方面具有广泛的应用。石墨材料具有金属和非金属材料的特性,使其适用于各种工业应用。石墨的特性如高耐热性和化学惰性使其在高温下有效。 由于工业过程基础设施的增加,采矿和汽车行业的快速增长以及汽车技术的进步,发展中国家石墨电极需求的增长是近期石墨电极市场增长的关键因素。 预计2016-2023预测期内,全球超高功率石墨电极市场将以9.56%的复合年增长率增长。2015年,整个石墨电极市场的UHP石墨电极市场占收入份额的67%。另一方面,2015年基础设施和建筑业占55.2%,2016 – 2323年预测期的复合年增长率预计为6.8%。此外,由于使用节能省时的石墨电极,预计到2023年UHP石墨电极市场将达到110万公吨。 亚太地区是全球UHP石墨电极市场的主要创收区域。中国和印度等国家的快速钢铁生产以及全球新兴经济体日益增长的现代化基础设施正在扩大对优质电弧炉钢的需求,这进一步推动了对UHP石墨电极的需求。

lightning protection needle ,used for protecting the building when raining and lightning

SLE lighting rod LMM Product Brief Description: Lightning rod ,alternate named lightning protection needle ,used forprotecting the building when raining and lightning . The lightning rod installed on the building and transfer the electric to earthing metal to protect the building . Our SLE lightning rod comply with GB standardCustomized lightning rod available Characters: Under the same height,protection area is bigger than common lightning protection scope. Have a significant role in triggering lightning, ground lightning moreaccurate. More efficient than common lightning rod. No radioactivity and anticorrosion,strong ability to resist the wind. Easy to install with small volume and weight. No need coaxial shield cable. Suitable Scope: The lightning rod is used for lightning system of Petrochemical warehouse , radio station ,gasoline station, building , beacon station, communication station ,Military base ,radar room , bank building ect .

Domestic and foreign differences in the selection of rolling mill rolls

Domestic and foreign differences in the selection of rolling mill rolls In the past few years, in the selection of rolling mill rolls, there is a big gap between the domestic rolling mills and foreign countries. For example, the CIC tungsten carbide roll rings produced by Sandvik in Sweden has been introduced to China in the early 1990s. At the beginning, only the upper steel was used in a small amount, and no more than five. Although many rolling mills have been actively using imported tungsten carbide roll rings in recent years, they are all used for their interest in this product. Few of them are re-purchased. The biggest obstacle is limited to tungsten carbide roll rings. The price and use conditions, because the effect of such a roll, not only depends on the quality of the roll itself, but more importantly depends on the use conditions of the roll and the maintenance and maintenance of the roll. From this point alone, it is also unacceptable for roll users in the short term. In essence, this is a matter of using the roller concept. Two years ago, the British company’s British Union, Germany’s Barton’s bar rolling mill finishing mills all used high-speed steel rolling mill rolls.   Japan’s rolling mill rolls have undergone a fundamental change in the selection of rolls and a few years ago. The coarse-rolling stands generally use pearlitic ductile iron rolls, the medium-rolling stands use semi-high-speed steel rolling mill rolls, and the finishing stands are all high-speed steel rolling mill rolls. The bar rolls currently supplied to the United States are still pearlite ductile iron rolls and bainite ductile iron rolls, and even a certain amount of normal rolling mill rolls, but they think that after 3-5 years, like Japan, the selection of rolls will be...
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Requirements and development direction of steel properties for rolling mill rolls

Rolling mill rolls manufacturing method Steel rolling mill rolls production can be produced by methods such as forging, casting, powder sintering, and the like. The hot rolling work rolls are mainly casting rolling mill rolls. The casting method of the composite roll is mainly a centrifugal casting method and a continuous casting forming composite method. The inner layer of the centrifugal casting method is ductile iron, and the inner layer of the continuous casting forming composite roll is cast steel. The cold rolling work rolls are mainly forged rolls. Casting rolling mill rolls and forging rolls are available in a variety of materials. Tropical rolling mill rolls performance requirements The hot-rolled strip unit is divided into a rough rolling section and a finishing section. The finishing section is further divided into a front section and a rear section. Since hot rolling is rolling at a high temperature, it is required that the rolling mill rolls have wear resistance at high temperatures. The rough rolling section rolls have a large rolling load and a large heat load, so the rolls are made of a cast material containing a large amount of carbide. However, from the beginning of finish rolling, the material of each stand roll can be changed to a material with less carbide content. Casting rolling mill rolls that utilize carbide are generally rolling mill rolls having a composite structure. In addition, the roll for the finishing stage is also required to have an accident-resistant material. Steel rolling mill rolls development direction The front section of the finishing mill emphasizes wear resistance and orange peel resistance. In the past, high Cr cast iron rolling mill rolls were used, but high-speed steel rolls were used since the 1990s. The material of the rough rolling section is high-speed steel, and high-hardness carbide...
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Introduction of copper mould tubes for continuous casting machine

Introduction of copper mould tubes for continuous casting machine: The copper mould tube is an accessory for a cast steel continuous casting machine, which is caused by direct casting of molten steel in a copper mould tube. The copper mould tube for continuous casting is one of the core equipment of the continuous casting machine, which is directly related to the quality of the continuous casting billet.   The core component of the high-efficiency crystallizer device is the copper mould tube. Its quality and performance determine the service life of the crystallizer. The high quality copper mould tube adopts the continuous taper crystal form, which greatly improves the heat transfer efficiency of the copper tube. Compared with the crystallizer, it can effectively make the heat transfer of the green shell in the copper tube and the thickness of the shell more uniform. The internal quality of the billet is ensured and the occurrence of steel leakage is effectively controlled.   The cooling of the copper mould tube adopts the narrow water seam cooling form to optimize the cooling effect. The cooling water jacket is formed by stainless steel molding and multi-type die stamping to ensure the gap between the inner water jacket and the copper pipe; the crystallizer The outer casing is made of ordinary carbon steel plate, and the production process is completed by welding, annealing and mechanical processing to ensure the machining precision.   In addition, the vibration of the copper mould tube is realized by the rotation of the eccentric mechanism driven by the motor, so that the output current and the bus voltage exhibit periodic oscillation, and the bus voltage over-voltage fault may occur when the vibration frequency is high, by allowing the inverter to The busbar adjustment function enables the inverter to automatically adjust the...
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Zinc clad steel grounding rod

Zinc clad steel grounding rod: Characters: Strong plating bond, The zinc layer is boned to steel core strongly . Good anti corrosion and conductivity, The conductivity of zinc is 2.5 times of steel ,and more anti-corrosive and conductive. Shiny surface, Experienced workman make The zinc clad steel grounding rodwith advanced machines ,and the surface is more shiny. Super anode body: The zinc can regarded as sacrificial anode to protectgrid and other metal body. Long life, Max zinc thickness at single side can reach 11. 5mm andtheoretical life can reach 40 years. Quality accessories, The zinc clad steel grounding rod are made with quality materialand 8 years manufacture experience. Technical Parameters: The thickness of zinc layer is 1-3mm ,and 11.5mm Max available ; Tension strength2 520N/mm2 Straightness errors 1mm/m Suitable Scope: The zinc clad steel grounding rod is used for earthing system of power plant,transformer station ,tower ,communication station , airport, railway, subwaystation , high building , computer room ,petro plant , oil reservoir in theenvironmental of moist ,saline and alkaline ,acid and chemical corrosionmedium environmental Instruction of Use: The installation of stainless steel grounding rod is very flexible , both hammer and electric pick are ok .In the bad soil condition , please drill andthen install . 1. When installing the rod deeply with hammer , please fit the drilling head

Stainless steel grounding rod

Stainless steel grounding rod Stainless steel grounding rod is suitable bad environmental , such as power plant ,power transfer station , iron tower ,communication station ,airport,railway ,Petrochemical plant ,oil reservoir .The main performance is high strength and anti-corrosion performance and the material is SS 304 . Characters: Good anti-corrosion, The material SS 304 is suitable for the strong acidalkali environmental and the life can be more than 30 years; Good mechanical performance: The material SS304 is hot endurance  and strong strength; Shiny surface, Experienced workman make the rods with advanced machines ,and the surface is more shiny. Simple installation,Simple installation both by machine and hand are ok,and the installation cost is very economical. Suitable Scope: Stainless steel grounding rod is used for earthing system of power plant, transformer station , tower ,communication station , airport, railway, subway station , high building ,computer room ,petro plant ,oil reservoir in the environmental of moist ,saline and alkaline ,acid and chemical corrosion medium environmental Instruction of Use: The installation of stainless steel grounding rod is very flexible , both hammer and electric pick are ok .In the bad soil condition ,please drill and then install . 1. When installing the rod deeply with hammer , please fit the drilling head to protect copper layer and connect multi grounding rod with coupler ; 2. When installing the rod deeply in rock or other hard soil area with drilling tool ,please refer to below choice: Before installing rod ,please drill hole and then fill bentonite and water

Refractory castables have broad prospects for development

Refractory castables have broad prospects for development According to the CW Research Global Refractory Market Report, by 2021, the value of the global refractory market is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 3.4%. The market’s demand for high-quality refractory products is expected to continue to grow. Another important trend facing refractory producers is the increased demand for Refractory castables. Therefore, in the future market, manufacturers will have to adapt to more customized solutions and solve related logistics and transportation services. By 2021, the use of casting materials will account for a higher proportion. The large use of refractory castables will place higher demands on manufacturers, especially on extending the service life, because the replacement of refractory castables will be more complicated and expensive for downstream users. Competition, technological innovation, and raw material procurement challenges provide a backdrop for refractory companies to integrate their expertise and resources. This is the case with RHIMagnesita’s acquisition of Magnesita, which aims to create the world’s largest refractory company in terms of production capacity and natural resource allocation. The acquisition is an attempt to gain access to most of the steel industry’s customers four years after the establishment of the first plant in Brazil. With China’s restrictions on domestic mining, in the next few years, producers who rely entirely on Chinese raw material supply will likely have more industry consolidation.

Inner Mongolia: New graphite electrode clusters

Inner Mongolia: New graphite electrode clusters In 2017, the graphite electrode market, which has been quiet for many years, finally ushered in the “spring blossoms”. From the end of April of 17 years, the price of graphite electrode began to soar, taking ultra-high-power graphite electrode as an example, from 21,000 yuan / ton, directly rose to 200,000 yuan / ton, until September to stop.   The location of the competition for the capital was chosen in Inner Mongolia.  According to statistics, 15 enterprises in Inner Mongolia have invested in graphite electrodes, anode materials and graphitization. According to the project declaration statistics, graphite electrode planning is 330,000 tons, lithium battery anode material is 218,000 tons, and graphitization is foundry. 16.2 million tons.   The data shows that the total output of graphite electrodes in China in 2017 is about 552,000 tons. If 330,000 tons of graphite electrodes are put into operation in Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia will form an important graphite electrode production area in China, and the industrial cluster effect will be formed.   In terms of cost, electricity costs account for a large proportion of the production cost of graphite electrodes. Inner Mongolia has implemented power multilateral trading and transmission and distribution price reforms, as well as direct transactions by large users, which directly promoted the significant reduction in the cost of electricity for enterprises. In Inner Mongolia, seven emerging industries such as graphite electrodes, silicon carbide series and rare earth terminal applications have been listed on the infinite price for trading, and the transaction price has been greatly reduced, attracting these industries to transfer to Inner Mongolia. In terms of policies, Inner Mongolia has favorable conditions for attracting investment projects and gives strong support in taxation and special funds. In addition, the implementation of various environmental protection policies...
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The price of graphite electrode rose by 0.1-0.5 million yuan / ton

“The price of graphite electrode rose by 0.1-0.5 million yuan / ton” After the National Day, the price of needle coke increased, and the price of needle-like coke in Jinzhou Petrochemical Company was raised by RMB 1,000/ton to RMB 30,000/ton.   The price of domestic needle coke increased by 40%-60% compared with the beginning of the year; the price of imported oil needle coke increased by 37%, and the low-cost supply completely disappeared in the market. Since 2017, needle coke products have continued to make huge profits, and people inside and outside the industry have stepped into this hot spot.   According to the agency’s forecast, the total supply of needle coke in China is 460,000 tons in 2018, and the output of domestic needle coke is 270,000 tons, 60% of which will flow to the graphite electrode market. The high price of needle coke is inseparable from the support of the downstream market. .   Needle coke is a scarce product at home and abroad. Needle coke accounts for more than 70% of the total cost of graphite electrodes, and the ultra-high power graphite electrode raw materials are completely composed of needle coke. In 2018, China’s electric furnace steel industry is developing rapidly. The annual output is expected to exceed 100 million tons, and nearly 40 new electric arc furnaces. The increase of electric furnace steel production capacity has injected new vitality into China’s graphite electrode market. China has officially announced capacity replacement. The designed capacity of the new electric arc furnace is 50.8 million tons. According to the agency’s forecast, China’s electric furnace steel output will reach 130 million tons in 2020, and the global demand for graphite electrodes will increase by 350,000 tons from 2018 to 2020.

Copper bonded grounding rod LMM

Copper bonded grounding rod  Characters: Strong copper bond, The copper layer is boned to steel core strongly withadvanced ultrasonic cleaning Copper thickness is more even, Computer control current and voltage,which make the copper thickness more even. Good anti corrosion and conductivity, Good anti-corrosion and conductivityobtained with Skin-effect and pure copper material. Shiny surface, Experienced workman make the rods with advancedmachines , and the surface is more shiny. Simple installation, Simple installation both by machine and hand are ok   ,and  the installation cost is very economical. Long life, Max copper thickness at single side can reach O. 5mm andtheoretical  life can reach 40 years. Quality accessories, The accessories of rod are made with quality material and 8 years manufacture experience Technical Parameters: Thinnest thickness of copper layer20.254mmUL .standard z 0. 254mm.Tension strength2600N/mm2.Straightness errors 1mm/m. Plasticity of copper layer, No crack under U bent. Combination of copper layer, No copper layer peel off except for peelingwith wrench.                                                   Suitable Scope: LMM offer , which is made with low carbon steel core bonded 99. 9% pureelectrolytic copper. The grounding rod have characters of anti-corrosion and ductility , which is superior than common copper clad steel rod and easy to install deeply Copper bond steel grounding rod is used for earthing system of power plant,transformer station , tower , communication station ,airport, railway, subwaystation , high building ,computer room ,petro plant , oil reservoir in the environmental of moist ,saline and alkaline ,acid and chemical corrosionmedium environmental  

Earthing Rod for sale near me

The company mainly engaged in the development of grounding system(Copper clad steel grounding rod ), production, sales, lighting protection and other business Now , there are customers in Europe ,Africa ,Asia, Australia, South America ,who use  LMM product .Meanwhile LMM supply the material to State grid (StateGrid Corporation of China) ,Petro China (PetroChina Company Limited) , Power China(Power Construction Corporation Limited of China) ,CRCC(China Railway ConstructionCorporation Limited )KPLC (Jordanian Electric Power Co., Ltd.),JPECO(Jordanian ElectricPower Co.,Ltd. ) and other famous customers. Our grounding rod and exothermic welding kit were used in filed of Power ,Construction,Petro,Energy ,Telecom ,Railway widely . Our design and service team always assist ourcustomer to finish their good project in world market. LMM pass the approval ofISO9001-2008,CE, BV already ,we would like to cooperate with global customers andmake the good lightning protection project . By far the largest and most important component of any structural lightning protection orearthing system is the actual conductor. Selection of the correct conductor type for the installation is highly important, and is likely to be the initialconsideration of a lightning protection or earthing system designer. A comprehensive range of  LMM  copper and aluminium conductors are available in each of the main world standardformats, i.e. flat tape, solid circular and stranded. Additionally each format is available in a variety of conductor sizes,to meet differing lightning protection and earthing requirements. Specification will depend on whether the application is for an above ground structural lightning protection system, ora below ground earthing installation.  

High Quality Copper Moulds – Engineers to your casting success.

PERFECET TAPER During steel solidifying, there might be an air gap between the steel strand and the mould inside wall, which will reduce the thermal conduction of steel. In order to minimize the formation of such air gap, the taper of mould should be properly designed to follow the shrinkage curve to the maximum extent. Thus, different taper designs have been provided, such as single, double, triple or multi-taper or parabolic taper depending on factors such as steel grade, casting speed, cooling condition etc.   RICH CHROME PLATING Chrome plating is furnished to the inside wall of copper mould tube so as to increase the wear resistance and improve the service life of the tube. Chrome Coating thickness of around 0.10mm is recommended.

Breaking phenomenon and cause of graphite electrode in smelting

It is a common phenomenon that graphite electrodes are broken in all electric furnace smelting, and it is also the most important factor affecting consumption. It is normal for continuous consumption and occasional breaks in a complex environment, but continuous breaks are not normal. The reason is related to many factors. The overall view can be divided into: artificial break and mechanical break. The artificial break mainly includes: bumping and scratching during lifting, improper connection or improper method, improper sliding in the flat holder, poor hardness of hard collision or transmission control. In addition to mechanical failures in mechanical breaking, electrode quality problems and operational problems are often present and difficult to distinguish. The main phenomena are as follows.   (1) Electrode body fracture phenomenon First, the electrode may have structural defects and may have low strength; second, it is a short-arc operation after smelting, and there is a lateral impact force of a large collapse; third, the three-phase electrode on the furnace is not vertical and has a slag Or scraping the lid phenomenon. The sound is very brittle when broken.   (2) Breaking of the bottom of the electrode body First, the electrode end structure is loose or has dark lines, the joint and the hole are not properly matched or the material difference linear expansion coefficient is not matched; the second is that the phase electrode is not concentric, the electrode stroke is too long or the lifting is not sensitive; the third is that the furnace fabric is unreasonable There is no conductive material under the electrode. When breaking, the sound is not big but the tilt is heavier.   (3) The joint is broken and irregular First, the taper of the joint is different or the ellipticity of the joint is too large; the second...
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